Short Term Capital Gain

Tuesday, May 31, 2011 | comments

Friends,  Out of two type of Capital Gain, Short Term Capital Gain plays  important part in Indian Income Tax Returns.   A good percentage of assessee in India, buy and sell Shares and earn STCG (Short Term Capital Gain).   At the time of submission of Income Tax Return, there may be some difficulty  How to enter such type of loss/profit.  A common man do not know its complication.    Some important words related to the short term capital gain used in ITR  are given as under:-
  • Capital Gain for Slump Sale.
  • Exemption under section 54B/54D
  • Deduction u/s 48.
  • Short Term Capital Gain under section 111A
Three snap shoots related to Short Term Capital Gain are given as under to clarity the same. 


Schedule CG (Picutre -1)


Schedule CYLA/BFLA (Picutre -2)
 


Schedule CFL (Picutre -3)
 
Use of ITR Form
  •  If an individual earn short term capital gain and he has no business income, ITR-2 form will be issued. 
  • If an individual has business income along with Short Term Capital Gain, then ITR-4 form will  be issued. 
What is Slump Sale
  • Slump Sale  means the transfer of one or more undertaking as a result of the sale for a lump sum consideration without values being assigned to the individual assets & liabilities in such sales.
Section 54B in detail as per Income Tax Act

 13 [Capital gain on transfer of land used for agricultural purposes not to be charged in certain cases.
 14 54B. 15 [(1)] 16 [Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where the capital gain arises] from the transfer of a capital asset being land which, in the two years immediately preceding the date on which the transfer took place, was being used by the assessee or a parent of his for agricultural purposes 17 [(hereinafter referred to as the original asset)], and the assessee has, within a period of two years after that date, purchased any other land for being used for agricultural purposes, then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as income of the previous year in which the transfer took place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say,—
           (i)  if the amount of the capital gain is greater than the cost of the land so purchased (hereinafter referred to as the new asset), the difference between the amount of the capital gain and the cost of the new asset shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase, the cost shall be nil; or
          (ii)  if the amount of the capital gain is equal to or less than the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase, the cost shall be reduced, by the amount of the capital gain.]
 18 [(2) The amount of the capital gain which is not utilised by the assessee for the purchase of the new asset before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139, shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return [such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139] in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme 19 which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit; and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for the purchase of the new asset together with the amount so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset :
Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for the purchase of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then,—
           (i)  the amount not so utilised shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year in which the period of two years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and
          (ii)  the assessee shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.
Explanation.— 20 [Omitted by the Finance Act, 1992, w.e.f. 1-4-1993.]]

Section 54D in detail as per Income Tax Act
   21 [Capital gain on compulsory acquisition of lands and buildings not to be charged in certain cases.
 22 54D. 23 [(1)] 24 [Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), where the capital gain arises] from the transfer by way of compulsory acquisition under any law of a capital asset, being land or building or any right in land or building, forming part of an industrial undertaking 25 belonging to the assessee which, in the two years immediately preceding the date on which the transfer took place, was being used by the assessee for the purposes of the business of the said undertaking 26 [(hereafter in this section referred to as the original asset)], and the assessee has within a period of three years after that date purchased any other land or building or any right in any other land or building or constructed any other building for the purposes of shifting or re-establishing the said undertaking or setting up another industrial undertaking, then, instead of the capital gain being charged to income-tax as the income of the previous year in which the transfer took place, it shall be dealt with in accordance with the following provisions of this section, that is to say,—
           (i)  if the amount of the capital gain is greater than the cost of the land, building or right so purchased or the building so constructed (such land, building or right being hereafter in this section referred to as the new asset), the difference between the amount of the capital gain and the cost of the new asset shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase or construction, as the case may be, the cost shall be nil; or
          (ii)  if the amount of the capital gain is equal to or less than the cost of the new asset, the capital gain shall not be charged under section 45; and for the purpose of computing in respect of the new asset any capital gain arising from its transfer within a period of three years of its purchase or construction, as the case may be, the cost shall be reduced by the amount of the capital gain.]
 27 [(2) The amount of the capital gain which is not utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset before the date of furnishing the return of income under section 139, shall be deposited by him before furnishing such return [such deposit being made in any case not later than the due date applicable in the case of the assessee for furnishing the return of income under sub-section (1) of section 139] in an account in any such bank or institution as may be specified in, and utilised in accordance with, any scheme 28 which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, frame in this behalf and such return shall be accompanied by proof of such deposit; and, for the purposes of sub-section (1), the amount, if any, already utilised by the assessee for the purchase or construction of the new asset together with the amount so deposited shall be deemed to be the cost of the new asset:
Provided that if the amount deposited under this sub-section is not utilised wholly or partly for the purchase or construction of the new asset within the period specified in sub-section (1), then,—
           (i)  the amount not so utilised shall be charged under section 45 as the income of the previous year in which the period of three years from the date of the transfer of the original asset expires; and
          (ii)  the assessee shall be entitled to withdraw such amount in accordance with the scheme aforesaid.
Explanation.— 29 [Omitted by the Finance Act, 1992, w.e.f. 1-4-1993.]

 Section 48 in detail as per Income Tax Act
 45 [Mode of computation.
 46 48. The income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” shall be computed, by deducting from the full value of the consideration 47 received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset the following amounts, namely :—
           (iexpenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer 48 ;
          (iithe cost of acquisition of the asset and the cost of any improvement 48 thereto:
 49 Provided that in the case of an assessee, who is a non-resident, capital gains arising from the transfer of a capital asset being shares in, or debentures of, an Indian company shall be computed by converting the cost of acquisition, expenditure incurred wholly and exclusively in connection with such transfer and the full value of the consideration received or accruing as a result of the transfer of the capital asset into the same foreign currency as was initially utilised in the purchase of the shares or debentures, and the capital gains so computed in such foreign currency shall be reconverted into Indian currency, so, however, that the aforesaid manner of computation of capital gains shall be applicable in respect of capital gains accruing or arising from every reinvestment thereafter in, and sale of, shares in, or debentures of, an Indian company :
Provided further that where long-term capital gain arises from the transfer of a long-term capital asset, other than capital gain arising to a non-resident from the transfer of shares in, or debentures of, an Indian company referred to in the first proviso, the provisions of clause (ii) shall have effect as if for the words “cost of acquisition” and “cost of any improvement”, the words “indexed cost of acquisition” and “indexed cost of any improvement” had respectively been substituted:
 50 [Provided also that nothing contained in the second proviso shall apply to the long-term capital gain arising from the transfer of a long-term capital asset being bond or debenture other than capital indexed bonds issued by the Government :]
 51 [Provided also that where shares, debentures or warrants referred to in the proviso to clause (iii) of section 47 are transferred under a gift or an irrevocable trust, the market value on the date of such transfer shall be deemed to be the full value of consideration received or accruing as a result of transfer for the purposes of this section :]
 52 [Provided also that no deduction shall be allowed in computing the income chargeable under the head “Capital gains” in respect of any sum paid on account of securities transaction tax under Chapter VII of the Finance (No. 2) Act, 2004.]
Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—
           (i)  “foreign currency” 53 and “Indian currency” 53 shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in section 2 of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973);
          (iithe conversion of Indian currency into foreign currency and the reconversion of foreign currency into Indian currency shall be at the rate of exchange prescribed in this behalf;
         (iii)  “indexed cost of acquisition” means an amount which bears to the cost of acquisition the same proportion as Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the Cost Inflation Index for the first year in which the asset was held by the assessee or for the year beginning on the 1st day of April, 1981, whichever is later;
         (iv)  “indexed cost of any improvement” means an amount which bears to the cost of improvement the same proportion as Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the improvement to the asset took place;
      54 [(v)  “Cost Inflation Index”, in relation to a previous year, means such Index as the Central Government may, having regard to seventy-five per cent of average rise in the Consumer Price Index for urban non-manual employees for the immediately preceding previous year to such previous year, by notification 55 in the Official Gazette, specify, in this behalf.]]

Section 111A in detail as per Income Tax Act
 20[Tax on short-term capital gains in certain cases.
111A. (1) Where the total income of an assessee includes any income chargeable under the head “Capital gains”, arising from the transfer of a short-term capital asset, being an equity share in a company or a unit of an equity oriented fund and—
          (a)  the transaction of sale of such equity share or unit is entered into on or after the date on which Chapter VII of the Finance (No. 2) Act, 2004 comes into force; and
          (b)  such transaction is chargeable to securities transaction tax under that Chapter,
the tax payable by the assessee on the total income shall be the aggregate of—
           (i)  the amount of income-tax calculated on such short-term capital gains at the rate of 21[fifteen] per cent; and
          (ii)  the amount of income-tax payable on the balance amount of the total income as if such balance amount were the total income of the assessee:
Provided that in the case of an individual or a Hindu undivided family, being a resident, where the total income as reduced by such short-term capital gains is below the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax, then, such short-term capital gains shall be reduced by the amount by which the total income as so reduced falls short of the maximum amount which is not chargeable to income-tax and the tax on the balance of such short-term capital gains shall be computed at the rate of ten* per cent.
(2) Where the gross total income of an assessee includes any short-term capital gains referred to in sub-section (1), the deduction under Chapter VI-A shall be allowed from the gross total income as reduced by such capital gains.
(3) Where the total income of an assessee includes any short-term capital gains referred to in sub-section (1), the rebate under section 88 shall be allowed from the income-tax on the total income as reduced by such capital gains.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression “equity oriented fund” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to clause (38) of section 10.]

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